Italia Indicadores de la economía

Principales indicadores (annual data)
Latest value
Time coverage
Economic growth: the rate of change of real GDP
0.88
1961 - 2016
Annual percentage growth rate of GDP at market prices based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2010 U.S. dollars. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources.
Gross Domestic Product, billions of U.S. dollars
1849.97
1960 - 2016
GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in current U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using single year official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used.
Gross Domestic Product, billions of 2010 U.S. dollars
2058.1
1960 - 2015
GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2010 U.S. dollars. Dollar figures for GDP are converted from domestic currencies using 2010 official exchange rates. For a few countries where the official exchange rate does not reflect the rate effectively applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used.
GDP per capita, Purchasing Power Parity
34220
1990 - 2015
GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP). PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U.S. dollar has in the United States. GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2011 international dollars.
GDP per capita, constant 2010 dollars
33849.39
1960 - 2015
GDP per capita is gross domestic product divided by midyear population. GDP is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. Data are in constant 2010 U.S. dollars.
Human Development Index (0 - 1)
0.887
1980 - 2015
The Human Development Index measures three basic dimensions of human development: long and healthy life, knowledge, and a decent standard of living. Four indicators are used to calculate the index: life expectancy at birth, mean years of schooling, expected years of schooling, and gross national income per capita.
Inflation: percent change in the Consumer Price Index
-0.1
1960 - 2016
Inflation as measured by the consumer price index reflects the annual percentage change in the cost to the average consumer of acquiring a basket of goods and services that may be fixed or changed at specified intervals, such as yearly. The Laspeyres formula is generally used.
Capital investment as percent of GDP
16.99
1965 - 2015
Gross capital formation (formerly gross domestic investment) consists of outlays on additions to the fixed assets of the economy plus net changes in the level of inventories. Fixed assets include land improvements (fences, ditches, drains, and so on); plant, machinery, and equipment purchases; and the construction of roads, railways, and the like, including schools, offices, hospitals, private residential dwellings, and commercial and industrial buildings. Inventories are stocks of goods held by firms to meet temporary or unexpected fluctuations in production or sales, and "work in progress." According to the 1993 SNA, net acquisitions of valuables are also considered capital formation.
Household consumption as percent of GDP
61.00
1965 - 2015
Household final consumption expenditure (formerly private consumption) is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households. It excludes purchases of dwellings but includes imputed rent for owner-occupied dwellings. It also includes payments and fees to governments to obtain permits and licenses. Here, household consumption expenditure includes the expenditures of nonprofit institutions serving households, even when reported separately by the country. This item also includes any statistical discrepancy in the use of resources relative to the supply of resources.
Savings as percent of GDP
18.67
1970 - 2015
Gross savings are calculated as gross national income less total consumption, plus net transfers.
Government spending as percent of GDP
18.93
1960 - 2015
General government final consumption expenditure (formerly general government consumption) includes all government current expenditures for purchases of goods and services (including compensation of employees). It also includes most expenditures on national defense and security, but excludes government military expenditures that are part of government capital formation.
Government debt as percent of GDP
134.85
1990 - 2013
Debt is the entire stock of direct government fixed-term contractual obligations to others outstanding on a particular date. It includes domestic and foreign liabilities such as currency and money deposits, securities other than shares, and loans. It is the gross amount of government liabilities reduced by the amount of equity and financial derivatives held by the government. Because debt is a stock rather than a flow, it is measured as of a given date, usually the last day of the fiscal year.
Value added by industry as percent of GDP
23.53
1990 - 2015
Industry corresponds to ISIC divisions 10-45 and includes manufacturing (ISIC divisions 15-37). It comprises value added in mining, manufacturing (also reported as a separate subgroup), construction, electricity, water, and gas. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3. Note: For VAB countries, gross value added at factor cost is used as the denominator.
Value added by the manufacturing sector as percent of GDP
15.79
1990 - 2015
Manufacturing refers to industries belonging to ISIC divisions 15-37. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3. Note: For VAB countries, gross value added at factor cost is used as the denominator.
Value added in the services sector as percent of GDP
74.22
1990 - 2015
Services correspond to ISIC divisions 50-99 and they include value added in wholesale and retail trade (including hotels and restaurants), transport, and government, financial, professional, and personal services such as education, health care, and real estate services. Also included are imputed bank service charges, import duties, and any statistical discrepancies noted by national compilers as well as discrepancies arising from rescaling. Value added is the net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or depletion and degradation of natural resources. The industrial origin of value added is determined by the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), revision 3. Note: For VAB countries, gross value added at factor cost is used as the denominator.
Las operaciones internacionales (annual data)
Latest value
Time coverage
Exchange rate: local currency units per U.S. dollar
1736.21
1960 - 1998
Official exchange rate refers to the exchange rate determined by national authorities or to the rate determined in the legally sanctioned exchange market. It is calculated as an annual average based on monthly averages (local currency units relative to the U.S. dollar).
Terms of trade, base year = 2000
103.39
2000 - 2015
Net barter terms of trade index is calculated as the percentage ratio of the export unit value indexes to the import unit value indexes, measured relative to the base year 2000. Unit value indexes are based on data reported by countries that demonstrate consistency under UNCTAD quality controls, supplemented by UNCTAD's estimates using the previous year’s trade values at the Standard International Trade Classification three-digit level as weights. To improve data coverage, especially for the latest periods, UNCTAD constructs a set of average prices indexes at the three-digit product classification of the Standard International Trade Classification revision 3 using UNCTAD’s Commodity Price Statistics, interna­tional and national sources, and UNCTAD secretariat estimates and calculates unit value indexes at the country level using the current year's trade values as weights.
Exports of goods and services as percent of GDP
30.06
1960 - 2015
Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.
Exports of goods and services, annual growth
4.25
1961 - 2015
Annual growth rate of exports of goods and services based on constant local currency. Aggregates are based on constant 2010 U.S. dollars. Exports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services provided to the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.
Imports of goods and services as percent of GDP
26.98
1960 - 2015
Imports of goods and services represent the value of all goods and other market services received from the rest of the world. They include the value of merchandise, freight, insurance, transport, travel, royalties, license fees, and other services, such as communication, construction, financial, information, business, personal, and government services. They exclude compensation of employees and investment income (formerly called factor services) and transfer payments.
Foreign Direct Investment, percent of GDP
0.71
1970 - 2015
Foreign direct investment are the net inflows of investment to acquire a lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the investor. It is the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of earnings, other long-term capital, and short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. This series shows net inflows (new investment inflows less disinvestment) in the reporting economy from foreign investors, and is divided by GDP.
Net portfolio equity inflows
12897.95
1970 - 2015
Portfolio equity includes net inflows from equity securities other than those recorded as direct investment and including shares, stocks, depository receipts (American or global), and direct purchases of shares in local stock markets by foreign investors. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
Current account balance as percent of GDP
1.61
1970 - 2015
Current account balance is the sum of net exports of goods and services, net primary income, and net secondary income.
Trade balance as percent of GDP
3.08
1960 - 2015
External balance on goods and services (formerly resource balance) equals exports of goods and services minus imports of goods and services (previously nonfactor services).
Foreign exchange reserves including gold, billion USD
130.59
1960 - 2015
Total reserves comprise holdings of monetary gold, special drawing rights, reserves of IMF members held by the IMF, and holdings of foreign exchange under the control of monetary authorities. The gold component of these reserves is valued at year-end (December 31) London prices. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
Remittances, million USD
2401.50
1970 - 2015
Personal transfers consist of all current transfers in cash or in kind made or received by resident households to or from nonresident households. Personal transfers thus include all current transfers between resident and nonresident individuals. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
Competitividad - El índice del Foro Económico Mundial
4.50
2006 - 2016
The Global Competitiveness index is composed of 12 pillars of competitiveness. The pillars are organized as followed: Basic requirements (Institutions, Infrastructure, Macroeconomic Stability, Health and Primary Education); Efficiency enhancers (Higher Education and Training, Goods Market Efficiency, Labour Market Efficiency, Financial Market Sophistication, Technological Readiness, Market Size), and Innovation and sophistication factors (Business Sophistication, Innovation).
FDI Confidence Index from A.T. Kearney (0-3)
1.56
2004 - 2017
The FDI Confidence Index is an indicator created by A.T. Kearney, a global management consulting firm operating in 40 countries across the world. The index ranks countries on a scale from 0 to 3 based on their attractiveness for foreign direct investments. A score of 3 represents the highest level of confidence. The index is constructed using data from a survey capturing the opinions of senior executives and regional and business leaders from 27 countries with high FDI outword flows. Within the survey, the respondents are asked what is the likelihood to make a direct investment in a given country over the next three years: high, medium, low or "no interest". The individual responses are aggregated to produce a country score.
Población activa (annual data)
Latest value
Time coverage
Unemployment rate
11.54
1991 - 2016
Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment.
Unemployment rate for females
12.67
1991 - 2016
Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment.
Unemployment rate for males
10.72
1991 - 2016
Unemployment refers to the share of the labor force that is without work but available for and seeking employment.
Youth unemployment, ages 15-24
38.36
1991 - 2016
Youth unemployment refers to the share of the labor force ages 15-24 without work but available for and seeking employment.
Labor force participation rate
48.28
1990 - 2016
Labor force participation rate is the proportion of the population ages 15 and older that is economically active: all people who supply labor for the production of goods and services during a specified period.
Labor force, percent female
42.13
1990 - 2016
Female labor force as a percentage of the total show the extent to which women are active in the labor force. Labor force comprises people ages 15 and older who supply labor for the production of goods and services during a specified period.
Female labor force participation rate
39.26
1990 - 2016
Labor force participation rate is the proportion of the population ages 15 and older that is economically active: all people who supply labor for the production of goods and services during a specified period.
Male labor force participation rate
57.98
1990 - 2016
Labor force participation rate is the proportion of the population ages 15 and older that is economically active: all people who supply labor for the production of goods and services during a specified period.
Tasa de inactividad por edades
56.54
1960 - 2015
Age dependency ratio is the ratio of dependents--people younger than 15 or older than 64--to the working-age population--those ages 15-64. Data are shown as the proportion of dependents per 100 working-age population.
Infraestructuras y transporte (annual data)
Latest value
Time coverage
Internet users, per 100 people
65.57
1990 - 2015
Internet users are individuals who have used the Internet (from any location) in the last 12 months. Internet can be used via a computer, mobile phone, personal digital assistant, games machine, digital TV etc.
Broadband internet subscribers
14900171
2000 - 2015
Fixed broadband subscriptions refers to fixed subscriptions to high-speed access to the public Internet (a TCP/IP connection), at downstream speeds equal to, or greater than, 256 kbit/s. This includes cable modem, DSL, fiber-to-the-home/building, other fixed (wired)-broadband subscriptions, satellite broadband and terrestrial fixed wireless broadband. This total is measured irrespective of the method of payment. It excludes subscriptions that have access to data communications (including the Internet) via mobile-cellular networks. It should include fixed WiMAX and any other fixed wireless technologies. It includes both residential subscriptions and subscriptions for organizations.
Fixed broadband internet subscribers per 100 people
23.80
2000 - 2015
Fixed broadband subscriptions refers to fixed subscriptions to high-speed access to the public Internet (a TCP/IP connection), at downstream speeds equal to, or greater than, 256 kbit/s. This includes cable modem, DSL, fiber-to-the-home/building, other fixed (wired)-broadband subscriptions, satellite broadband and terrestrial fixed wireless broadband. This total is measured irrespective of the method of payment. It excludes subscriptions that have access to data communications (including the Internet) via mobile-cellular networks. It should include fixed WiMAX and any other fixed wireless technologies. It includes both residential subscriptions and subscriptions for organizations.
Mobile phone subscribers, in millions
86.89
1960 - 2015
Mobile cellular telephone subscriptions are subscriptions to a public mobile telephone service that provide access to the PSTN using cellular technology. The indicator includes (and is split into) the number of postpaid subscriptions, and the number of active prepaid accounts (i.e. that have been used during the last three months). The indicator applies to all mobile cellular subscriptions that offer voice communications. It excludes subscriptions via data cards or USB modems, subscriptions to public mobile data services, private trunked mobile radio, telepoint, radio paging and telemetry services.
Mobile phone subscribers, per 100 people
142.12
1960 - 2015
Mobile cellular telephone subscriptions are subscriptions to a public mobile telephone service that provide access to the PSTN using cellular technology. The indicator includes (and is split into) the number of postpaid subscriptions, and the number of active prepaid accounts (i.e. that have been used during the last three months). The indicator applies to all mobile cellular subscriptions that offer voice communications. It excludes subscriptions via data cards or USB modems, subscriptions to public mobile data services, private trunked mobile radio, telepoint, radio paging and telemetry services.
Airline passengers of domestically owned airlines
26.04
1970 - 2015
Air passengers carried include both domestic and international aircraft passengers of air carriers registered in the country.
Railroad lines, total length in km
16724
1980 - 2015
Rail lines are the length of railway route available for train service, irrespective of the number of parallel tracks.
Volume of goods transported by railways
10267
1980 - 2015
Goods transported by railway are the volume of goods transported by railway, measured in metric tons times kilometers traveled.
Railway passengers
39290
1980 - 2015
Passengers carried by railway are the number of passengers transported by rail times kilometers traveled.
Tráfico marítimo de contenedores
11312777.00
2000 - 2014
Port container traffic measures the flow of containers from land to sea transport modes., and vice versa, in twenty-foot equivalent units (TEUs), a standard-size container. Data refer to coastal shipping as well as international journeys. Transshipment traffic is counted as two lifts at the intermediate port (once to off-load and again as an outbound lift) and includes empty units.
Energía (annual data)
Latest value
Time coverage
Uso de energía
2405.48
1960 - 2014
Energy use refers to use of primary energy before transformation to other end-use fuels, which is equal to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transport.
Energía nuclear y alternativa
9.32
1960 - 2014
Clean energy is noncarbohydrate energy that does not produce carbon dioxide when generated. It includes hydropower and nuclear, geothermal, and solar power, among others.
Uso de energía por US$1.000 PIB
72.52
1990 - 2015
Energy use per PPP GDP is the kilogram of oil equivalent of energy use per constant PPP GDP. Energy use refers to use of primary energy before transformation to other end-use fuels, which is equal to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transport. PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to 2011 constant international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as a U.S. dollar has in the United States.
Emisiones de CO2 (kt)
344768
1960 - 2013
Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.
Emisiones de CO2 (toneladas métricas per cápita)
5.72
1960 - 2013
Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.
Importaciones de energía
75.38
1960 - 2014
Net energy imports are estimated as energy use less production, both measured in oil equivalents. A negative value indicates that the country is a net exporter. Energy use refers to use of primary energy before transformation to other end-use fuels, which is equal to indigenous production plus imports and stock changes, minus exports and fuels supplied to ships and aircraft engaged in international transport.
GDP per unit of energy used
15.00
1990 - 2015
GDP per unit of energy use is the PPP GDP per kilogram of oil equivalent of energy use. PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to 2011 constant international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as a U.S. dollar has in the United States.
Rentas totales de los recursos naturales (% del PIB)
0.17
1970 - 2014
Total natural resources rents are the sum of oil rents, natural gas rents, coal rents (hard and soft), mineral rents, and forest rents.
Rentas del petróleo (% del PIB)
0.13
1970 - 2014
Oil rents are the difference between the value of crude oil production at world prices and total costs of production.
Renta del gas natural (% del PIB)
0.02
1970 - 2014
Natural gas rents are the difference between the value of natural gas production at world prices and total costs of production.
Acceso a la electricidad
100.00
1990 - 2012
Access to electricity is the percentage of population with access to electricity. Electrification data are collected from industry, national surveys and international sources.
Sector financiero (annual data)
Latest value
Time coverage
ATM machines per 100,000 adults
96.13
2004 - 2015
Number of ATMs per 100,000 adults. Automated teller machines are computerized telecommunications devices that provide clients of a financial institution with access to financial transactions in a public place.
Innovaciones (annual data)
Latest value
Time coverage
Índice Innovaciones
47.20
2011 - 2016
The Global Innovation Index includes two sub-indices: the Innovation Input Sub-Index and the Innovation Output Sub-Index. The first sub-index is based on five pillars: Institutions, Human capital and research, Infrastructure, Market sophistication, and Business sophistication. The second sub-index is based on two pillars: Knowledge and technology outputs and Creative outputs. Each pillar is divided into sub-pillars and each sub-pillar is composed of individual indicators.
Gasto en investigación y desarrollo (% del PIB)
1.29
1996 - 2014
Expenditures for research and development are current and capital expenditures (both public and private) on creative work undertaken systematically to increase knowledge, including knowledge of humanity, culture, and society, and the use of knowledge for new applications. R&D covers basic research, applied research, and experimental development.
Exportaciones de productos de TIC
1.67
2000 - 2014
Information and communication technology goods exports include computers and peripheral equipment, communication equipment, consumer electronic equipment, electronic components, and other information and technology goods (miscellaneous).
Exportaciones de productos de alta tecnología
26955.34
1988 - 2015
High-technology exports are products with high R&D intensity, such as in aerospace, computers, pharmaceuticals, scientific instruments, and electrical machinery. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
Exportaciones de productos de alta tecnología
7.34
1988 - 2015
High-technology exports are products with high R&D intensity, such as in aerospace, computers, pharmaceuticals, scientific instruments, and electrical machinery.
Solicitudes de patentes, residentes
8601
1960 - 2014
Patent applications are worldwide patent applications filed through the Patent Cooperation Treaty procedure or with a national patent office for exclusive rights for an invention--a product or process that provides a new way of doing something or offers a new technical solution to a problem. A patent provides protection for the invention to the owner of the patent for a limited period, generally 20 years.
Sistema tributario (annual data)
Latest value
Time coverage
Recaudación impositiva (% del PIB)
23.60
1973 - 2014
Tax revenue refers to compulsory transfers to the central government for public purposes. Certain compulsory transfers such as fines, penalties, and most social security contributions are excluded. Refunds and corrections of erroneously collected tax revenue are treated as negative revenue.
Tasa tributaria total, % de utilidades comerciales
64.80
2005 - 2015
Total tax rate measures the amount of taxes and mandatory contributions payable by businesses after accounting for allowable deductions and exemptions as a share of commercial profits. Taxes withheld (such as personal income tax) or collected and remitted to tax authorities (such as value added taxes, sales taxes or goods and service taxes) are excluded.
Tiempo para preparar y pagar impuestos
269
2005 - 2015
Time to prepare and pay taxes is the time, in hours per year, it takes to prepare, file, and pay (or withhold) three major types of taxes: the corporate income tax, the value added or sales tax, and labor taxes, including payroll taxes and social security contributions.
Pago de impuestos
14
2005 - 2015
Tax payments by businesses are the total number of taxes paid by businesses, including electronic filing. The tax is counted as paid once a year even if payments are more frequent.
Impuestos sobre bienes y servicios (% de la recaudación)
23.38
1973 - 2014
Taxes on goods and services include general sales and turnover or value added taxes, selective excises on goods, selective taxes on services, taxes on the use of goods or property, taxes on extraction and production of minerals, and profits of fiscal monopolies.
Income, profits, and capital gains taxes: percent of revenue
31.64
1973 - 2014
Taxes on income, profits, and capital gains are levied on the actual or presumptive net income of individuals, on the profits of corporations and enterprises, and on capital gains, whether realized or not, on land, securities, and other assets. Intragovernmental payments are eliminated in consolidation.
Sistema político (annual data)
Latest value
Time coverage
Rule of law index (-2.5 weak; 2.5 strong)
0.25
1996 - 2015
The index for Rule of Law captures perceptions of the extent to which agents have confidence in and abide by the rules of society, and in particular the quality of contract enforcement, property rights, the police, and the courts, as well as the likelihood of crime and violence.
Government effectiveness index (-2.5 weak; 2.5 strong)
0.45
1996 - 2015
The index of Government Effectiveness captures perceptions of the quality of public services, the quality of the civil service and the degree of its independence from political pressures, the quality of policy formulation and implementation, and the credibility of the government's commitment to such policies.
Control of corruption (-2.5 weak; 2.5 strong)
-0.05
1996 - 2015
The index for Control of Corruption captures perceptions of the extent to which public power is exercised for private gain, including both petty and grand forms of corruption, as well as capture of the state by elites and private interests.
Regulatory quality index (-2.5 weak; 2.5 strong)
0.73
1996 - 2015
The index of Regulatory Quality captures perceptions of the ability of the government to formulate and implement sound policies and regulations that permit and promote private sector development.
Voice and accountability index (-2.5 weak; 2.5 strong)
1.01
1996 - 2015
The index for Voice and Accountability captures perceptions of the extent to which the citizens are able to participate in selecting their government, as well as freedom of expression, freedom of association, and a free media.
Political stability index (-2.5 weak; 2.5 strong)
0.34
1996 - 2015
The index of Political Stability and Absence of Violence/Terrorism measures perceptions of the likelihood that the government will be destabilized or overthrown by unconstitutional or violent means, including politically-motivated violence and terrorism. The index is an average of several other indexes from the Economist Intelligence Unit, the World Economic Forum, and the Political Risk Services, among others.
Corruption Perceptions Index, 100 = no corruption
47
2001 - 2016
The Corruption Perceptions Index is an indicator of perceptions of public sector corruption, i.e. administrative and political corruption. The indicator values are determined by using information from surveys and assessments of corruption, collected by a variety of reputable institutions.
Political rights index, 7 (weak) - 1 (strong)
1
1972 - 2016
The Political Rights ratings from the Freedom House evaluate three categories: electoral process, political pluralism and participation, and the functioning of government. The index ranges from 1 (strong rights) to 7 (weak rights).
Civil liberties index, 7 (weak) - 1 (strong)
1
1972 - 2016
The Civil Liberties index from the Freedom House evaluate the following: freedom of expression and belief, associational and organizational rights, rule of law, and personal autonomy and individual rights. The rating ranges from 1 (strong liberties) to 7 (no liberties).
Women in parliament, percent
31.00
1990 - 2016
Women in parliaments are the percentage of parliamentary seats in a single or lower chamber held by women.
La libertad económica (annual data)
Latest value
Time coverage
Índice de los derechos de propiedad (0-100)
50
1995 - 2016
The property rights index measures the degree to which a country’s laws protect private property rights and the degree to which its government enforces those laws. It also assesses the likelihood that private property will be expropriated and analyzes the independence of the judiciary, the existence of corruption within the judiciary, and the ability of individuals and businesses to enforce contracts. Higher index values denote more certain legal protection of property.
Índice de libertad frente a la corrupción (0-100)
43
1995 - 2016
The score for the Freedom of corruption index is derived primarily from Transparency International’s Corruption Perceptions Index. For countries that are not covered in the CPI the freedom from corruption score is determined by using information from internationally recognized and reliable sources. Higher index values denote lower level of corruption.
Índice de libertad fiscal (0-100)
56
1995 - 2016
The Fiscal freedom index measures the tax burden imposed by government. It is composed of three quantitative factors: the top marginal tax rate on individual income, the top marginal tax rate on corporate income, and the total tax burden as a percentage of GDP.
Índice de libertad de negocios (0-100)
70
1995 - 2016
The Business freedom index is based on 10 indicators, using data from the World Bank’s Doing Business study: Starting a business-procedures (number), time (days), cost (% of income per capita), and minimum capital (% of income per capita); Obtaining a license—procedures (number), time (days), and cost (% of income per capita); Closing a business—time (years), cost (% of estate), and recovery rate (cents on the dollar).
De la libertad de trabajo (0-100)
53
2005 - 2016
The Labor freedom index is composed of six quantitative factors: ratio of minimum wage to the average value added per worker, hindrance to hiring additional workers, rigidity of hours, difficulty of firing redundant employees, legally mandated notice period, and mandatory severance pay. The index is based on data collected in connection with the World Bank’s Doing Business study.
Índice de libertad monetaria (0-100)
84.50
1995 - 2016
The score for the Monetary freedom index is based on two factors: the weighted average inflation rate for the most recent three years and price controls. Higher index values denote price stability without microeconomic intervention.
Índice de la libertad de comercio (0-100)
88
1995 - 2016
The Trade freedom index is based on two indicators: the trade-weighted average tariff rate and non-tariff barriers (including quantity, price, regulatory, customs and investment restrictions, and direct government intervention).
Índice de libertad de Inversiones (0-100)
85
1995 - 2016
The Investment freedom index evaluates a variety of investment restrictions (burdensome bureaucracy, restrictions on land ownership, expropriation of investments without fair compensation, foreign exchange controls, capital control, security problems, a lack of basic investment infrastructure, etc.). Points are deducted from the ideal score of 100 for each of the restrictions found in a country’s investment regime.
Índice de Libertad financiera
60
1995 - 2016
The Financial freedom index evaluates: the extent of government regulation of financial services, the degree of state intervention in banks and other financial firms through direct and indirect ownership, the extent of financial and capital market development, government influence on the allocation of credit and openness to foreign competition. Higher index values denote banking efficiency and independence from government control and interference in the financial sector.
Salud (annual data)
Latest value
Time coverage
Gasto en salud per cápita
3257.75
1995 - 2014
Total health expenditure is the sum of public and private health expenditures as a ratio of total population. It covers the provision of health services (preventive and curative), family planning activities, nutrition activities, and emergency aid designated for health but does not include provision of water and sanitation. Data are in current U.S. dollars.
Gasto en salud como porcentaje del PIB
9.25
1995 - 2014
Total health expenditure is the sum of public and private health expenditure. It covers the provision of health services (preventive and curative), family planning activities, nutrition activities, and emergency aid designated for health but does not include provision of water and sanitation.
Esperanza de vida al nace
82.69
1960 - 2014
Life expectancy at birth indicates the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life.
Tasa de natalidad
8.30
1960 - 2014
Crude birth rate indicates the number of live births occurring during the year, per 1,000 population estimated at midyear. Subtracting the crude death rate from the crude birth rate provides the rate of natural increase, which is equal to the rate of population change in the absence of migration.
Tasa de mortalidad
9.80
1960 - 2014
Crude death rate indicates the number of deaths occurring during the year, per 1,000 population estimated at midyear. Subtracting the crude death rate from the crude birth rate provides the rate of natural increase, which is equal to the rate of population change in the absence of migration.
Tasa de fertilidad
1.39
1960 - 2014
Total fertility rate represents the number of children that would be born to a woman if she were to live to the end of her childbearing years and bear children in accordance with age-specific fertility rates of the specified year.
Prevalence of HIV, percent of the population ages 15-49
0.40
1990 - 2015
Prevalence of HIV refers to the percentage of people ages 15-49 who are infected with HIV.
Cases of Tuberculosis per 100,000 people
5.80
2000 - 2015
Incidence of tuberculosis is the estimated number of new and relapse tuberculosis cases arising in a given year, expressed as the rate per 100,000 population. All forms of TB are included, including cases in people living with HIV. Estimates for all years are recalculated as new information becomes available and techniques are refined, so they may differ from those published previously.
Educación (annual data)
Latest value
Time coverage
Gasto público en educación, total (% del PIB)
4.14
1970 - 2011
General government expenditure on education (current, capital, and transfers) is expressed as a percentage of GDP. It includes expenditure funded by transfers from international sources to government. General government usually refers to local, regional and central governments.
Public spending on education, percent of public spending
8.43
1998 - 2011
Total general (local, regional and central) government expenditure on education (current, capital, and transfers), expressed as a percentage of total general government expenditure on all sectors (including health, education, social services, etc.). It includes expenditure funded by transfers from international sources to government. Public education expenditure includes spending by local/municipal, regional and national governments (excluding household contributions) on educational institutions (both public and private), education administration, and subsidies for private entities (students/households and other privates entities). In some instances data on total public expenditure on education refers only to the ministry of education and can exclude other ministries that spend a part of their budget on educational activities. The indicator is calculated by dividing total public expenditure on education incurred by all government agencies/departments by the total government expenditure and multiplying by 100. For more information, consult the UNESCO Institute of Statistics website: http://www.uis.unesco.org/Education/
Tasa de alfabetización
99.07
1981 - 2013
Percentage of the population age 15 and above who can, with understanding, read and write a short, simple statement on their everyday life. Generally, ‘literacy’ also encompasses ‘numeracy’, the ability to make simple arithmetic calculations. This indicator is calculated by dividing the number of literates aged 15 years and over by the corresponding age group population and multiplying the result by 100.
Tasa de alfabetización, mujeres jóvenes
99.93
1981 - 2013
Youth (15-24) literacy rate (%). Female is the number of females age 15 to 24 years who can both read and write with understanding a short simple statement on their everyday life, divided by the female population in that age group. Generally, ‘literacy’ also encompasses ‘numeracy’, the ability to make simple arithmetic calculations.
Tasa de alfabetización, varones jóvenes
99.92
1981 - 2013
Youth (15-24) literacy rate (%). Male is the number of males age 15 to 24 years who can both read and write with understanding a short simple statement on their everyday life, divided by the male population in that age group. Generally, ‘literacy’ also encompasses ‘numeracy’, the ability to make simple arithmetic calculations.
Tasa de alfabetización, total de jóvenes, edad 15-24
99.91
1981 - 2015
Youth (15-24) literacy rate (%). Total is the number of people age 15 to 24 years who can both read and write with understanding a short simple statement on their everyday life, divided by the population in that age group. Generally, ‘literacy’ also encompasses ‘numeracy’, the ability to make simple arithmetic calculations.
Proporción alumnos-maestro, nivel primario
12.03
1971 - 2013
Primary school pupil-teacher ratio is the average number of pupils per teacher in primary school.
Tasa de finalización de la educación de nivel primario
100.05
1971 - 2013
Primary completion rate, or gross intake ratio to the last grade of primary education, is the number of new entrants (enrollments minus repeaters) in the last grade of primary education, regardless of age, divided by the population at the entrance age for the last grade of primary education. Data limitations preclude adjusting for students who drop out during the final year of primary education.
Edad de inicio de la educación de nivel primario
6
1970 - 2015
Entrance age of primary is the age at which students would enter primary education, assuming they had started at the official entrance age for the lowest level of education, had studied full-time throughout and had progressed through the system without repeating or skipping a grade.
Proporción de inscripciones de mujeres con respecto a varones en la educación primaria
0.99
1971 - 2013
Gender parity index for gross enrollment ratio in primary education is the ratio of girls to boys enrolled at primary level in public and private schools.
Proporción de inscripciones de mujeres con respecto a varones en la educación secundaria
1
1971 - 2013
Gender parity index for gross enrollment ratio in secondary education is the ratio of girls to boys enrolled at secondary level in public and private schools.
Relación mujer: varones en la educación terciaria
1.40
1971 - 2013
Gender parity index for gross enrollment ratio in tertiary education is the ratio of women to men enrolled at tertiary level in public and private schools.
Inscripción escolar, nivel preprimario (% bruto)
99.93
1971 - 2013
Total enrollment in pre-primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the total population of official pre-primary education age. GER can exceed 100% due to the inclusion of over-aged and under-aged students because of early or late school entrance and grade repetition.
Inscripción escolar, nivel primario
101.89
1971 - 2013
Total enrollment in primary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population of official primary education age. GER can exceed 100% due to the inclusion of over-aged and under-aged students because of early or late school entrance and grade repetition.
Inscripción escolar, nivel secundario
102.40
1971 - 2013
Total enrollment in secondary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population of official secondary education age. GER can exceed 100% due to the inclusion of over-aged and under-aged students because of early or late school entrance and grade repetition.
Inscripción escolar, nivel terciario
63.46
1971 - 2013
Total enrollment in tertiary education (ISCED 5 to 8), regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the total population of the five-year age group following on from secondary school leaving.
Globalización (annual data)
Latest value
Time coverage
Índice de Globalización (0-100)
80.31
1973 - 2014
The overall index of globalization covers the economic, social, and political dimensions of globalization. Higher values denote greater globalization.
Índice de Globalización Económica (0-100)
70.28
1973 - 2014
Economic globalization has two dimensions: actual economic flows and restrictions to trade and capital. The sub-index on actual economic flows includes data on trade, FDI, and portfolio investment. The sub-index on restrictions takes into account hidden import barriers, mean tariff rates, taxes on international trade (as a share of current revenue), and an index of capital controls.
Índice de globalización política (0-100)
97.71
1973 - 2014
The degree of political globalization is determined by the number of embassies and high commissions in a country, the number of international organizations to which the country is a member, the number of UN peace missions a country participated in, and the number of treaties signed between two or more states.
Índice de Globalización Social (0-100)
77.94
1973 - 2014
Social globalization has three dimensions: personal contacts, information flows, and cultural proximity. The sub-index on personal contacts includes international telecom traffic, degree of tourism, transfers, foreign population, and number of international letters. The sub-index on information flows includes number of internet users, share of households with a television set, and trade in newspapers. The sub-index on cultural proximity includes trade in books and number of McDonald’s restaurants and Ikea located in a country.
Petróleo, carbón y electricidad (annual data)
Latest value
Time coverage
Reservas de petróleo, billón de barriles
0.60
1980 - 2016
Proved reserves of crude oil are the estimated quantities of all liquids defined as crude oil, which geological and engineering data demonstrate with reasonable certainty to be recoverable in future years from reservoirs under existing economic and operating conditions.
Producción de petróleo, miles de barriles diarios
168.00
1980 - 2014
Oil production includes the production of crude oil (including lease condensate), natural gas plant liquids, and other liquids, and refinery processing gain. Negative values indicate a net refinery processing loss.
La producción de gasolina, miles de barriles diarios
357.82
1980 - 2013
Gasoline production includes production of: conventional gasoline; all types of oxygenated gasoline, including gasohol; and reformulated gasoline; but excludes production of aviation gasoline. Volumetric data on blending components, such as oxygenates, are not counted in data on finished motor gasoline until the blending components are blended into the gasoline.
Producción de combustible para aviones, miles de barriles diarios
43.56
1980 - 2013
Producción de GLP, miles de barriles diarios
59.46
1980 - 2013
El consumo de petróleo, miles de barriles diarios
1266.00
1980 - 2014
Oil consumption (Total petroleum consumption) includes internal consumption, refinery fuel and loss, and bunkering. Also included, where available, is direct combustion of crude oil.
Gasoline consumption, thousand barrels per day
205.00
1980 - 2014
Consumo de combustible para aviones, miles de barriles diarios
81.00
1980 - 2014
Consumo de gas licuado de petróleo, miles de barriles diarios
102.00
1980 - 2014
Liquefied petroleum gases include ethane, ethylene, propane, propylene, normal butane, butylene, isobutane, and isobutylene. The Liquefied Petroleum Gases consumption also includes, where data are available, liquefied petroleum gases sold directly from natural gas processing plants for fuel or chemical uses and pentanes plus.
La producción de carbón, mil toneladas cortas
95.00
1980 - 2014
Total primary coal production (Coal includes anthracite, subanthracite, bituminous, subbituminous, lignite, brown coal, and oil shale.)
El consumo de carbón, mil toneladas cortas
22163.00
1980 - 2014
Coal consumption includes anthracite, subanthracite, bituminous, subbituminous, lignite, brown coal, and oil shale. It also includes net imports of metallurgical coke.
Las importaciones de carbón, mil toneladas cortas
21970.00
1980 - 2014
Exportación de carbón, mil toneladas cortas
2.20
2000 - 2014
La producción de electricidad, billón de kilovatios-hora
267.00
1980 - 2014
Total electricity net generation (Net generation excludes the energy consumed by the generating units)
La generación de energía nuclear, billón de kilovatios-hora
0.05
1980 - 1987
Nuclear electricity net generation (Net generation excludes the energy consumed by the generating units)
La generación de hidroelectricidad, billón de kilovatios-hora
57.96
1980 - 2014
Hydroelectric generation excludes generation from hydroelectric pumped storage.
El consumo de electricidad, billón de kilovatios-hora
291.27
1980 - 2014
Total Electricity Net Consumption = total net electricity generation + electricity imports - electricity exports – electricity transmission and distribution losses. Net consumption excludes the energy consumed by the generating units.
Capacidad de producción de electricidad, millones de kilovatios
121.76
1980 - 2014
Total Electricity Installed Capacity (Million Kilowatts)
Importación de electricidad, billón de kilovatios-hora
46.75
1980 - 2014
Exportación de electricidad, billón de kilovatios-hora
3.03
1980 - 2014
La generación de energía renovable, billón de kilovatios-hora
122.56
1980 - 2014
Total Renewables Electricity Net Generation (Net generation excludes the energy consumed by the generating units and also excludes generation from hydroelectric pumped storage)
El consumo de energía renovable, de billón de kilovatios-hora
91.80
1980 - 2012
Total Renewables Electricity Net Consumption (Net consumption excludes the energy consumed by the generating units)
Otros indicadores (annual data)
Latest value
Time coverage
Population size, in millions
60.60
1960 - 2016
Total population is based on the de facto definition of population, which counts all residents regardless of legal status or citizenship. The values shown are midyear estimates.
Percent urban population
69.12
1960 - 2016
Urban population refers to people living in urban areas as defined by national statistical offices. The data are collected and smoothed by United Nations Population Division.
El gasto militar, en millones de dólares de los EE.UU.
34004.00
2010 - 2012
Military spending includes expenditure on peacekeeping, defense ministries, paramilitary forces, and military space activities. Also: military and civil personnel, including retirement pensions; operations and maintenance; procurement; military research and development; and military aid. Defense and current expenditure for past military activities, such as for veterans' benefits, demobilization, conversion, and weapon destruction, are not included.
El gasto militar, porcentaje del PIB
1.70
2010 - 2012
Military spending includes expenditure on peacekeeping, defense ministries, paramilitary forces, and military space activities. Also: military and civil personnel, including retirement pensions; operations and maintenance; procurement; military research and development; and military aid. Defense and current expenditure for past military activities, such as for veterans' benefits, demobilization, conversion, and weapon destruction, are not included.